Monday, September 29, 2008
Practical Recent Abstracts
Edited by Jennifer S. Fryer, DVM
The influence of crystalloid type on acid-base and electrolyte status of cats with urethral obstruction
Drobatz KJ, Cole SG. JVECCS 2008; 18: 355 – 361.
To compare the effect of a balanced isotonic crystalloid solution with that of 0.9% sodium chloride on the acid[ndash]base and electrolyte status of cats with urethral obstruction. Randomized prospective clinical trial. Academic veterinary emergency room.
Sixty-eight cats with naturally occurring urethral obstruction. Cats were randomized to receive either a balanced isotonic crystalloid solution (Normosol-R, n=39) or 0.9% sodium chloride (n=29) for fluid therapy. Baseline venous blood gas and blood electrolyte values were obtained at the time of admission and at intervals during the course of therapy. Baseline values were similar between groups.
Cats receiving Normosol-R had a significantly higher blood pH at 12 hours, a significantly greater increase in blood pH from baseline at 6 and 12 hours, as well as a significantly higher blood bicarbonate concentration at 12 hours and a significantly greater increase in blood bicarbonate from baseline at 6 and 12 hours. Conversely, the increase in blood chloride from baseline was significantly higher at 2, 6, and 12 hours in cats receiving 0.9% sodium chloride. There were no significant differences in the rate of decline of blood potassium from baseline between groups. Subgroup analysis of hyperkalemic cats (K+>6.0 mmol/L) and acidemic cats (pH<7.3) style="font-weight: bold;">Efficacy and tolerability of once-daily cephalexin in canine superficial pyoderma: an open controlled study
Toma S, Colombo S, Cornegliani L, Persico P, Galzerano M, Gianino MM, Noli C. Journal of Small Animal Practice 2008; 49: 384 – 39.
Objectives: The aims of this study were to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of oral cephalexin given at 30 mg/kg once daily in dogs with superficial pyoderma and to compare them with those of oral cephalexin given at 15 mg/kg twice daily.
Methods: Twenty dogs with superficial pyoderma were treated with cephalexin at 30 to 60 mg/kg orally once daily (group A) and compared with 20 dogs treated at a dose of 15 to 30 mg/kg orally twice daily (group B). Dogs were treated until 14 days after clinical remission. Type and distribution of lesions, pruritus and general health status were assessed every 14 days using a numerical scale until 14 days after treatment discontinuation. Total scores for each evaluation day were compared between the two groups as well as time to obtain resolution and percentage of relapses.
Results: Resolution of superficial pyoderma was obtained in all dogs in 14 to 42 days (median 28 days for both groups), with no difference between groups. Six dogs experienced vomiting or diarrhoea but did not require discontinuation of the treatment. Only one dog (in group A) relapsed nine days after treatment discontinuation.
Clinical Significance: Once-daily cephalexin is as effective as twice-daily cephalexin in the treatment of canine superficial pyoderma.
Evaluation of antibodies against feline coronavirus 7b protein for diagnosis of feline infectious peritonitis in cats
Kennedy MA, Abd-Eldaim M, Zika SE, Mankin JM, Kania SA. AJVR 2008; 69: 1179-1182.
Objective—To determine whether expression of feline coronavirus (FCoV) 7b protein, as indicated by the presence of specific serum antibodies, consistently correlated with occurrence of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) in cats.
Sample Population—95 serum samples submitted for various diagnostic assays and 20 samples from specific-pathogen–free cats tested as negative control samples.
Procedures—The 7b gene from a virulent strain of FCoV was cloned into a protein expression vector. The resultant recombinant protein was produced and used in antibody detection assays via western blot analysis of serum samples. Results were compared with those of an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for FCoV-specific antibody and correlated with health status.
Results—Healthy IFA-seronegative cats were seronegative for antibodies against the 7b protein. Some healthy cats with detectable FCoV-specific antibodies as determined via IFA were seronegative for antibodies against the 7b protein. Serum from cats with FIP had antibodies against the 7b protein, including cats with negative results via conventional IFA. However, some healthy cats, as well as cats with conditions other than FIP that were seropositive to FCoV via IFA, were also seropositive for the 7b protein.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Expression of the 7b protein, as indicated by detection of antibodies against the protein, was found in most FCoV-infected cats. Seropositivity for this protein was not specific for the FCoV virulent biotype or a diagnosis of FIP.